Supercomputers are computers that lead in the world in process capacity, especially the speed of calculations, at the beginning of their introduction. Supercomputers introduced in the 1960s, designed by Seymour Cray in Control Data Corporation (CDC), led the market in the 1970s until Cray stopped to form his own company, Cray Research.
He then took the supercomputer market with his design, becoming a supercomputer leader for 25 years (1965-1990). In the 1980s several small competitors entered the market, which coincided with the creation of mini computers in the previous decade. Today, the supercomputer market is held by IBM and HP, even though Cray Inc. still specializing in making supercomputers.
Blue Waters is a petascale supercomputer, located in the NCSA (National Center for Supercomputing Applications) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. On August 8, 2007, the National Science Board approved a resolution authorizing the National Science Foundation (NSF for its acronym in English, of Nation Science Foundation) of the US to finance the acquisition and development of supercomputers more powerful in his class.
When the first Atlas was put into operation at the University of Manchester in 1962, it was one of the first supercomputers, and the fastest until the release of the CDC 6600.