Biography: Lal Bahadur was born in the city of Mughalsarai (modern Uttar Pradesh). To take part in the passive resistance movement of Mahatma Gandhi, in 1921 he began studying at the nationalist private university in Kashi. After graduation, he received the title "Shastri", that is, "scientist". In total, he spent 9 years in prison (in particular, from 1940 to 1946 for participating in the "Satyagraha" movement).
After independence, India became Minister of the Interior of Uttar Pradesh. In 1951 he was appointed general secretary of Lok Sabha, later appointed minister of railways in the government of Jawaharlal Nehru. Left this post after a train crash in Aryaluru, Tamil Nadu. After the next elections in 1961 he was appointed Minister of Transport, then Minister of the Interior of India.
On May 27, 1964, Nehru died, and the struggle for power began in the Congress Party. Shkatri, who, like Nehru, adhered to a socialist orientation, organized the left wing of the INC as a candidate, who was afraid of strengthening the center-right Morarji Desai, and was approved by the Prime Minister on June 9, 1964, although the leader in the struggle for this place was considered Desai.
Shastri tried to avoid abrupt changes in domestic politics, always seeking compromise. However, his government could not cope with the economic crisis and the problem of food shortages.
In 1965, the Second Indo-Pakistani War occurred. Major hostilities unfolded in Kashmir and Punjab. Pakistan reckoned that a rebellion would take place in Indian Kashmir, but this did not happen. Although the Pakistanis were able to advance deep into Indian territory in Punjab, the Indian troops succeeded in Kashmir, and the Indian troops shelled Lahore.
In late 1965, a truce was announced. In January 1966, Indo-Pakistani negotiations began in Tashkent through the mediation of the USSR. On January 10, 1966, the Tashkent Declaration was signed, putting an end to the war. The next day, Shastri died of a heart attack.
The memory of Shastri: The period of stay of Shastri as prime minister served to strengthen the position of India in the international arena and the position of the INC. Shastri became the first citizen of India, posthumously awarded the highest order of the country - "Bharat Ratna". His memory is dedicated to the Vijay Gat memorial in Delhi. Shastri was established a memorial bust in Tashkent, one of the streets of the city was named in his honor. In 2005, the airport in the city of Varanasi was named after Shastri.
Literature: Chandrika Prasad Srivastava. Lal Bahadur Shastri: a life of truth in politics. - M.: Golden-Bi, 2007. - 432 p. - ISBN 978-5-901124-29-1.