He was born to Siddarame Gowda and Boramma in a village called Siddaramanahundi in Varuna Hobli in the Mysore District in a farming family. He was not formally educated until he was ten years old but he earned a B.Sc. and Bachelor of Laws from the University of Mysore. He is a leader of the Kuruba Gowda community, the second largest in Karnataka. He was the second of five children.
Siddaramaiah was elected Chief Minister, after Congress adopted a secret election method to elect a new chief minister. He led the Indian National Congress with the most votes in the 2013 Karnataka Legislative Assembly elections.
He married Parvathi and had two sons - Rakesh, who played several film roles and helped his father, and Yathindra, who became a doctor. He was an Atheist, and said the oath of the minister with the name "Truth" to replace the word "God".